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plastic pollution


In this lesson we are going to take a look at, currently, one of the greatest threats to life on this planet, plastic pollution. We will delve into plastics story, from it’s creation to it’s resting place (if it has one). By following plastics journey we can better understand its purpose, its composition and its effects on the environment. We will also look at the responsibilities we have to protect the planet and the influences and shifts each and every one of us can have.

a brief history

Once a upon a time (1869) there was a man called John Wesley Hyatt. John wanted to create a substitute to Ivory. He achieved this goal, he discovered a plastic that could be crafted into a variety of shapes, this early plastic we called Celluloid. This was revolutionary. For the first time human manufacturing was not constrained by the limits of nature. Nature only supplied so much wood, metal, stone, bone, tusk, and horn. But now humans could create new materials. 

In 1907 Leo Baekeland invented Bakelite, Bakelite could be shaped or molded into almost anything, providing endless possibilities. World War II saw a great expansion of the plastic industry. For the past 50 years plastics have changed and shaped the way we live. This cheap, highly adaptable material quickly made it into every family home.

Of course, where there is a cause their is always an effect. Plastic debris in the oceans was first observed in the 1960s. Plastic’s reputation began to fall in the 1970s and 1980s as anxiety about waste increased. Furthermore, a growing concern about the potential threat plastics pose to human health saw its reputation drop even further.

A polymer once considered revolutionary is quickly becoming one of the biggest threats to this planet.

plastic planet


It is estimated that by 2050 there will be more plastic is the ocean than fish….let’s just let that sink in for a second.

8,000,000 (eight million) tonnes of plastic enters the oceans each year. This works out to be over 1 kilogram of plastic per human being on the planet. Cigarette butts are a major source of plastic pollution with over 5,000,000,000,000 (five trillion) being consumed each year.

Over the last few lessons we’ve looked at ecosystems, we know how connected every living creature on earth is. We need a healthy ocean and planet to survive.

So how does so much plastic end up in the ocean? 

© elasmo holdings pty ltd

© elasmo holdings pty ltd

Today, you cannot go anywhere without seeing litter. This isn’t some problem facing some far away country. This is an issue happening right on your door step. Litter that is often so carelessly dropped will make its way down storm drains, then out into river systems and inevitably into the ocean.

Plastics where invented to be durable and long lasting, a trait which makes them so useful is also their biggest flaw. You are most likely already aware that plastics are having a significant impact on life on Earth. This is particularly visible in the marine environment, and its effects can be seen right down the food chain!

© elasmo holdings pty ltd

© elasmo holdings pty ltd


Plastic does not degrade and it’s life expectancy is forever.

Two kinds of microplastics pollute our oceans.

The first type is tiny manufactured plastics that are intentionally designed that way. These manufactured plastics are called ‘nurdles’, and are used in factories to make larger plastic products. Other types of manufactured microplastics are tiny microbeads used in products like facial and body scrubs, toothpastes and washing powders.

The second type of microplastic comes from larger plastics breaking down. When plastic bags, bottles and straws break down they keep getting smaller until they can’t be seen, but they stay in the system forever. Microfibres are another type of microplastic. These are invisible plastic fibres that are shed from synthetic fabrics like polyester.


Ingestion and entanglement are the two most significant ways that plastics are impacting on animals. Over 700 species have been found to have ingested plastic. Direct ingestion (an animal eating a piece of plastic) is occurring at all stages of the food chain.

Seabirds and Plastic

Meet Dr. Jennifer Lavers, Jennifer is a marine eco-toxicologist with expertise in seabird ecology, plastic pollution, invasive species management, and fisheries by-catch. The long term monitoring of sea bird colonies has taken her to remote locations around the globe. Jennifer is passionate about communicating the issues surrounding marine plastic pollution to the public. She coordinates community environmental activities for school groups and hosts dozens of science workshops and seminars every year. 

Consider how plastic is being transferred through food webs via indirect digestion (an animal eating another animal who has eaten plastic).

© elasmo holdings pty ltd

© elasmo holdings pty ltd


Over 80 species have been found in Australian waters suffering from entanglement in plastic. The most visible examples have been turtles, humpback whales and pelicans. Entanglement can result in a horrific death via drowning, suffocation, strangulation or starvation.


Chemical leaching

Chemical leaching is an emerging concern. Chemicals can leach from plastic products into the surrounding environment or directly into an animal. There is currently less research to support the size of the impact of chemical leaching.

is all plastic created equal?




Biodegradable vs. Fragmentation 

Bioplastics are both bio-based (made from substances derived from living organisms) and biodegradable. A plastic is biodegradable if it can be converted to gas and water as a result of exposure to biological (e.g. water and microbes) and environmental (e.g. temperature and sunlight) factors.

Most plastics are not biodegradable, they instead breakdown via fragmentation – splitting into smaller and smaller pieces that will stay in the environment for hundreds of years. Any piece measuring less than 5mm is considered a microplastic.

Challenges with Bioplastics 

It is not compulsory for Australian manufacturers to comply with regulations in order to label their product as a bioplastic. Regulations vary from country to country. In Australia, materials will comply with current bioplastic regulations if 90% of their original dry weight degrades in temperatures of over 50 degrees. Backyard composts and the marine environment will never reach those temperatures. There are only limited commercial compost facilities in Australia that will provide for those conditions.


What does single-use plastic mean? Does plastic still have a place?

Small choices big change

Being more aware of our individual impact on the planet and the amount of waste we as individuals are responsible for, causes a shift in our perspective, which in turn changes our choices and behaviours. Here are some ways you can start fighting for change!

© elasmo holdings pty ltd

© elasmo holdings pty ltd

© elasmo holdings pty ltd

© elasmo holdings pty ltd


Saying “no” to single-use plastics like straws, coffee cups/lids and plastic bags is a easy, empowering and effective way to immediately reduce your plastic footprint.


There are a lot of alternatives to plastics and more and more eco-friendly products/brands are appearing every day.

Here are just a few alternatives to get you started;

© elasmo holdings pty ltd

© elasmo holdings pty ltd


If you do end up with single-use plastics why not reuse them, get creative! Maybe you can make them into an artwork or sculpture?

Produce stores such as Scoop Wholefoods at the Junction and Naked Foods in Charlestown square offer a sustainable and environmentally place for you to bulk buy foods such as grains, nuts, dried fruits, flours and much more. Using a refill system not only stops single use plastics it also helps your reduce your food waste, by only buying what you need when you need it.


At Coles and Woolworths, thanks to Red cycle, you can now recycle your soft, scrunchy plastics!

Download Redcycle guide

For bottles and cans there is the Return and Earn Scheme where you can earn 10c for every bottle.

The Newcastle, Maitland and Lake Macquarie council supply everyone with a yellow recycling bin, make sure you recycle everything that you can.

What can I put in the yellow bin?

Clothes, toys and household items

Don’t forget if you have items you don’t want, clothes that don’t fit you anymore, toys you don’t play with, why not take them to a charity shop like RedCross or the Salvation Army. It’s recycling, its reusing and it’s kind!

Take 3 for the Sea


Picking up litter when you see it is yet another way you can help to protect and improve the environment for generations to come. Each bit of litter you pick up is one less piece that will enter that ocean.


What does expressing your philosophy through your choices mean?

Do we agree that our choices are our own responsibility?


Eleanor Roosevelt, aged 64, reviews the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. Source:

Eleanor Roosevelt, aged 64, reviews the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. Source:

Eleanor Roosevelt spoke of our choices as being our personal philosophy in action. She added that our choices are also our personal responsibility

Let’s consider the entire lifetime of a product – from legislation to fragmentation: Who is responsible for plastic products?

One’s philosophy is not best expressed in words; it is expressed in the choices one makes… the choices we make are ultimately our own responsibility.
— Eleanor Roosevelt, 1960. Chairperson of the UDHR Drafting Committee


Can you identify 5 points during a products lifetime where there may be a transfer of responsibility?

1. ______________________

2. ______________________

3. ______________________

4. ______________________

5. ______________________

Scope of influence

My scope of influence is the individuals whose actions, decision making and wellbeing I can have an effect on – whether positive or negative.

This will change over time – sometimes it will grow, sometimes it will shrink.

And the individuals who are within my scope of influence will sometimes change.


Who is in your present scope of influence? and what changes can I make today to help reduce my plastic footprint?

If not you, then who? If not now, then when?
— Emma Watson